Children in emergency situations are particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labour
The rampant exploitation of vulnerable workers, including women and children, has increased alarmingly during the Covid-19 pandemic.
Urgent new measures are needed at the international and national levels to help stamp it out, a UN expert said on Thursday.
Those who have lost jobs and been reduced to starvation - for example in tourism or domestic work – have been forced to accept even more exploitative conditions, said the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons -- Maria Grazia Giammarinaro,
“People working in sectors considered essential during the Covid-19 pandemic such as agriculture or transport and deliveries, have been obliged to work under pressure, even longer working hours, and without appropriate safety measures," she said in a statement marking World Day Against Trafficking in Persons.
Children in emergency situations are particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labour.
"People exploited in prostitution and in the sex industry, mostly women and girls, have been left to starvation by their traffickers and exploiters during the lockdown, and have been subject to even more violent and extreme exploitation after its end," she added.
In view of the current crisis and the situation millions of workers finds themselves in, the impact of the pandemic confirms that the trend is still - and even more today - towards increasing severe exploitation, including in the context of trafficking.
"Against this background, I am convinced that a true shift is needed in the prevention of and fight against trafficking, which should be genuinely inspired by a human rights agenda to be really effective," Maria said.
This year is the 20th anniversary of the UN “Palermo Protocol” supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, the main international instrument on trafficking but anti-trafficking action remains limited to a specific area of law enforcement-led activities, while massive exploitation occurring in many economic sectors goes unnoticed and is becoming a systemic component of our economies, worldwide.
In order to promote a human-rights based approach to anti-trafficking, international and national legislation should change in five directions:
1.States and businesses due diligence obligations should be made binding, especially in the field of prevention, access to effective remedies including in the supply chains, and long-term measures aimed at social inclusion of trafficked and exploited persons including child right-based measures.
2.Trafficked and exploited persons should be allowed to appeal negative decisions on residence status and assistance.
3.The non-punishment principle should be applied to any illicit activities trafficked persons have been involved in as a direct consequence of their being trafficked.
4.Adequate funding should be provided to NGOs to deal with a broader area of exploited persons.
5.Immigration laws and regulations should provide for regular and accessible channels, firewalls between social services, labour inspections and judicial procedures, and immigrations controls, and regulation of recruitment and intermediation agencies.
All anti-trafficking measures must be gender-sensitive, said Maria.
In terms of prevention, root causes such as gender inequalities and gender discrimination, including women’s limited access to material and cultural resources, sexual and domestic violence, and conflict-related sexual violence should be addressed effectively.
"In terms of social inclusion of trafficked women and girls, long-term measures should have a transformative nature, and not be shaped on gender stereotypes. Meaningful relationships between women giving and receiving care have been at the core of women’s empowerment and should be considered a hub of human rights-based practices worldwide," said Maria.