Violations include rape, forced sterilization, virginity testing, female genital mutilation and more
Nearly half of women in 57 developing countries are denied the right to make decisions regarding their bodies, according to a UNFPA research.
UNFPA's 2021 flagship "State of World Population" report was released on Wednesday, read a press release.
For the first time, a United Nations report focuses on bodily autonomy: the power and agency to make choices about your body, without fear of violence or having someone else decide for you.
The bodily decisions include whether to have sex with their partners, use contraception or seek health care, and many more.
The lack of bodily autonomy has massive implications beyond the profound harms to individual women and girls: potentially depressing economic productivity, undercutting skills, and resulting in extra costs to health care and judicial systems.
Through this groundbreaking report, UNFPA is measuring both women’s power to make their own decisions about their bodies and the extent to which countries’ laws support or interfere with a woman’s right to make these decisions. The data show a strong link between decision-making power and higher levels of education.
The report shows that in countries where data are available only 55% of women are fully empowered to make choices over health care, contraception and the ability to say yes or no to sex.
“The fact that nearly half of women still cannot make their own decisions about whether or not to have sex, use contraception or seek health care should outrage us all,” says UNFPA Executive Director Dr Natalia Kanem.
“In essence, hundreds of millions of women and girls do not own their own bodies. Their lives are governed by others.”
The power to say yes, the right to say no
It was found that efforts to address abuses can lead to further violations of bodily autonomy. For example, to prosecute a case of rape, a criminal justice system might require a survivor to undergo an invasive so-called virginity test.
Real solutions, the report finds, must take into account the needs and experiences of those affected. In Mongolia, for example, persons with disabilities organized to give direct input to the government about their sexual and reproductive health needs.
In Angola, young people educated about their bodies, health and rights have been able to seek healthcare, use family planning, decline sex and petition for justice after sexual violence.
“The denial of bodily autonomy is a violation of women and girls’ fundamental human rights that reinforces inequalities and perpetuates violence arising from gender discrimination,” says Dr Kanem.
Dr Kanem says: “By contrast, a woman who has control over her body is more likely to be empowered in other spheres of her life. She gains not only in terms of autonomy, but also through advances in health and education, income and safety. She is more likely to thrive, and so is her family.”
The State of World Population report is UNFPA’s annual flagship publication. Published yearly since 1978, it shines a light on emerging issues in the field of sexual and reproductive health and rights, bringing them into the mainstream and exploring the challenges and opportunities they present for international development.